How Robots are Transforming Prefabricated Construction Manufacturing

Robot Tech

Prefabrication robots in construction

How Robots are Transforming Prefabricated Construction Manufacturing

Catherine Bernier
Content Manager
Content for Cobot

Learn about the growing influence of robots in the prefab construction industry.

Prefabrication, the practice of assembling parts of a structure in a manufacturing site and then transporting them to the construction site for final assembly, has seen significant growth over the years. It has become a popular choice due to its benefits, such as speed of construction, cost-effectiveness, and minimal site disturbance. 

This article will delve into the increasingly crucial role of robots in the prefabricated construction industry. We will explore the variety of applications for which robots are used, the different types of robots involved, and the advantages they bring to the table. Additionally, we will discuss the limitations of robotic technology and the challenges it may present to the industry.

Applications for Prefabricated Construction Manufacturing Robots 

Robots have found a wide range of applications within the prefab construction industry, transforming conventional practices with the power of automation. Let's explore some of these applications.

3D Printing

Perhaps one of the most innovative applications of robotics in the prefabricated construction sector is 3D printing. This process involves using large robotic arms equipped with special extruders to print construction components layer by layer. 

From concrete panels to intricate architectural features, these robots can produce components with a high level of accuracy and customization. Even more impressive is their ability to construct entire buildings, drastically reducing the time and labor typically required.

This technology is most commonly seen in generating low-cost housing in emerging countries. However, 3D-printed buildings are also beginning to appear in the US and Europe.

Material Handling and Assembly

Robots in prefabricated construction play a vital role in material handling and assembly. These high-strength robots can move, lift, and place heavy construction materials and prefabricated components with remarkable precision and speed. Furthermore, assembly line robots perform tasks such as:

Precision Cutting and Shaping

In prefabricated construction, the precision of the components is paramount to ensure seamless assembly at the site. Robots excel in this area, cutting, drilling, and shaping materials with an accuracy that is challenging to achieve manually. 

Their capabilities extend to complex shapes and precision components, significantly improving the quality and fit of the prefabricated parts.

Inspection and Quality Control

Robots armed with advanced sensors and cameras have started taking on the responsibility of inspecting the quality of prefabricated components. They can quickly scan parts or whole structures for defects, ensuring all components meet the required quality standards. 

This automation leads to a significant enhancement in quality control processes.

Types of Robots Used in Prefab Construction Manufacturing

Prefab construction robot 3D printing concrete


In prefabricated construction, various types of robots are used, each offering unique capabilities. In this section, we will focus on the two most common types of robots: Six-axis robots and gantry robots.

Six-Axis Robots

Six-axis robots, also known as articulated robots, are incredibly versatile machines. Equipped with six degrees of freedom, they can move in six different ways, which allows them to rotate, pitch, and yaw in any direction. 

This versatility makes them ideal for a variety of tasks in prefabricated construction.


One of the main strengths of six-axis robots is their unmatched precision and dexterity. They can handle complex tasks that require high accuracy, such as welding, cutting, and assembly of intricate components.

Their flexibility also allows them to navigate around obstacles, making them a valuable asset in crowded manufacturing environments.

A specific example of their use in prefab manufacturing is their role in 3D printing components. Given their precision and flexibility, six-axis robots can follow complex printing paths, creating intricate designs and structures that would be challenging to produce manually or with less capable machinery.


On the downside, six-axis robots generally have a smaller work envelope than other types of robots, such as gantry robots, and their performance can be influenced by payload and reach limitations. Additionally, they can be more complex to program and operate, requiring more technical expertise.

Gantry Robots

Gantry robots, also known as cartesian or linear robots, operate within a defined, rectangular work envelope. They move linearly along the X, Y, and Z axes, which makes them suitable for tasks that require straightforward, repetitive motion.


The primary strength of gantry robots lies in their large work envelope and high load-carrying capacity. This makes them ideal for material handling tasks, such as moving and placing heavy construction materials and prefabricated components. Gantry robots are also simpler to program and operate compared to more complex robotic systems, and their linear movement makes their actions easy to predict and manage.

An example of their application in prefab manufacturing is in the assembly line, where they can be used for stacking large, heavy prefabricated panels. Their strength and consistency ensure that the panels are accurately and safely placed, maximizing the efficiency of the assembly process.


However, gantry robots lack the flexibility of six-axis robots. They are confined to linear motions and can struggle with tasks that require complex movements or manipulation. Moreover, due to their large size and static installation, they require a significant amount of space, which may not be available in all manufacturing environments.

In summary, six-axis and gantry robots have unique strengths and limitations that make them suitable for different tasks within the prefabricated construction industry. Understanding these strengths and limitations is key to choosing the right robot for each specific application.


Benefits of Automating Your Prefabricated Construction Process

Prefab wall for construction


The use of robotics in the prefabricated construction industry presents many benefits, ranging from increased efficiency and precision to enhanced safety. Here are some of the key advantages.

Increased Efficiency and Speed

Robots can work around the clock without fatigue, drastically increasing productivity compared to human labor. They can quickly perform repetitive tasks, significantly reducing manufacturing and assembly time. For instance, a gantry robot, due to its high load-carrying capacity, can rapidly move and stack large, prefabricated panels, speeding up the assembly line process.

This enables you to transition your employees into more supervisory, robot specialist, and operational planning roles.

Improved Precision and Quality

The accuracy of robotic systems surpasses that of human workers. Robots can perform precision tasks such as cutting, drilling, and assembly with remarkable accuracy, leading to a high level of quality and consistency. Six-axis robots, for example, can perform intricate welding tasks with a precision that would be challenging for a human worker, ensuring high-quality joints and connections in prefabricated components.

Enhanced Safety 

Robots can perform dangerous tasks, reducing the risk of injury to human workers. In tasks such as lifting heavy components or working with hazardous materials, robots not only improve efficiency but also greatly enhance worker safety.

Waste Reduction

Due to their high precision, robots produce fewer errors and hence less waste, leading to cost savings and a more sustainable construction process. For instance, a robot used for precision cutting of construction materials can optimize its cutting paths to minimize waste material.

Labor Savings

While robots do require an initial investment, over time, they can lead to significant labor savings. With robots taking on many repetitive and labor-intensive tasks, companies can focus their human resources on more complex and strategic tasks.


Robots, especially six-axis robots, offer a high degree of flexibility. They can be reprogrammed to perform different tasks, allowing manufacturers to quickly adapt to changes in design or production requirements. This flexibility can be particularly useful in custom prefabrication, where each project may have unique requirements.

In conclusion, using robots in the prefabricated construction industry offers substantial advantages, enhancing productivity, quality, safety, and sustainability, while also providing a high degree of flexibility.

On the Horizon

As the prefabricated construction industry continues to embrace automation, artificial intelligence (AI) in design and planning is emerging as the next frontier. AI has the potential to revolutionize the industry by automating complex tasks such as generating optimal designs, scheduling tasks, and managing resources. This could significantly improve efficiency and reduce costs while allowing for a greater level of customization and adaptability. 


With AI, we could see systems that automatically design prefabricated components based on specific project requirements, schedule production, and assembly tasks to maximize efficiency, and even adapt designs and plans in response to changes in project requirements or conditions. While there are still challenges to overcome, and the technology is not yet widely adopted in the sector, integrating AI into the design and planning process could mark a major leap forward for the prefabricated construction industry.

What’s Next?

You may be ready to take the next step toward automating your processes, but where do you start?

The HowToRobot platform connects buyers of automation with a variety of suppliers in a streamlined, easy-to-use environment. 

Post your project on HowToRobot today for free, and begin receiving offers from vetted, relevant automation vendors from our supplier network

Have a question or want to know how to get started? Get in touch today, and we will be happy to help.